South Africa requires a valid yellow fever certificate from all foreign visitors and citizens over 1 year of age travelling from an infected area or having been in transit through infected areas. This is in line with the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005).

The IHR allow countries at risk to obtain vaccination certificates from individuals travelling from high-risk countries. If travellers or citizens are unable to produce a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate at the port of entry, or their vaccination has been administered less than 10 days before departure, they may be:

- refused entry; or

- quarantined until their certificate becomes valid, or for a period of not more than 6 days; or

- allowed entry, if they have an exemption certifcate due to medical reasons, but are required to report any fever or other symptoms to the health authorities and be placed under surveillance.

A valid yellow fever vaccination certificate, should be:

- approved by the World Health Organisation (WHO)

- administered at least 10 days before departure to South Africa at yellow fever-approved vaccination centres (the vaccine offers protection 10 days after administration)

High-risk countries include: Angola; Argentina; Benin; Bolivia; Brazil; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Colombia; Congo; Cote d'Ivoire; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ecuador; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; French Guyana; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Kenya; Liberia; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Suriname; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda; United Republic of Tanzania; Venezuela.